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#WorldWaterDay: Download Free Publications: Maritime Concerns and the Blue Economy 

Fourteen UP CIDS policy papers shed light on various maritime concerns and the Blue Economy.

Click on each title to view and download the PDFs.

Alternative Approaches to Territorial Disputes in Northeast and Southeast Asia (2019)

Conventional discussions on territorial disputes have focused mainly on the issues of nationalism, national identity, sovereignty, territorial integrity, and inviolable state boundaries. Manifestations of chauvinism, racism, and right-wing ultranationalism have subsequently surfaced that only serve to heighten conflicts. There is a need to move away from these divisive and counterproductive perspectives and surface alternative approaches anchored on a shared regional identity, common pool resource, common heritage of mankind, joint development, and attention to popular voices.

A Philippine Perspective: Capacitating ASEAN to Address Security Issues in Southeast Asia (2022) 

Existing ASEAN mechanisms involved in regional security matters deserve further examination regarding their relevance and appropriateness to the twenty-first-century strategic issues confronting Southeast Asia, prompting consideration of alternative approaches such as minilateralism. As for the Philippines, evaluative studies are still being conducted to assess the implications of participating in a minilateral framework on its national interests.

Coastal and Marine Ecosystems (Book Chapter) (1996)

This report chapter of State of the Philippine Environment assesses the present state of the coastal zone environment, with a focus on the three most important coastal ecosystems: coral reefs, mangrove swamps, and seagrass beds. Additionally, this chapter discusses marine fisheries in terms of fish capture and culture.

Defining the National Territory: Security and Foreign Relations Dimensions (2014) 

This study examines the implications of redefining the Philippines’ baselines, maritime boundaries, and jurisdictional areas on the country’s security interests and on its diplomacy and foreign relations.

Empowering Filipino Women Seafarers in the Maritime Sector (2016) 

This study finds that patriarchal beliefs and control in the seafaring industry have discouraged women sea officers from pursuing careers at sea. Using the women’s empowerment framework developed by Sara Longwe and the human rights-based approach as guides, this policy research paper proposes a package of measures to empower women by addressing issues on welfare, access, conscientization, mobilization, and control in the maritime industry.

Faunal Diversity in the Marine Coastal Zone (1995)

This paper provides a clear assessment of the marine coastal fauna of the Philippines. Given their critical importance to the economic welfare of a nation, the authors emphasize the necessity for appropriate management and conservation measures to be formulated to save them from the threats of extinction.

How the Philippines Could Pave the Way for a Minilateral Arrangement Policy Directions for a Philippine-led South China Sea Minilateral Initiative (2022) 

Based on the UP CIDS Strategic Studies Program research titled “A Philippine Perspective: Capacitating ASEAN to address security issues in Southeast Asia,” this policy brief discusses minilateralism as a viable approach to the South China Sea (SCS) disputes. The author emphasizes the importance of identifying specific objectives, selecting members based on their interest and commitment, anticipating accusations of interference, and establishing protective mechanisms in minilateral initiatives aimed at addressing the South China Sea dispute.

Indigenous Coastal Resource Management (The Case of Mataw Fishing in Batanes) (1993)

This occasional paper documents the organization of a traditional fishing cooperative in Batanes. It focuses on the regulation of access to fishing grounds, the manner of distributing the catch, and the effects of modernization on the traditional organization and world view of fisherfolk.

National Marine Policy Review and Strategic Direction (2016) 

In order to realize the needs for a policy reform, a reflective analysis of the 1994 National Marine Policy (NMP) must be completed. The review proper focuses on the state of things under the four pillars identified in the framework; namely Marine Development and Conservation, Marine Regulation and Enforcement, Marine Security, and Marine Politics and Jurisdiction.

“Pendulum Swings” in the Philippines’ South China Sea Approach? (2024) 

This article surveys the Philippine government’s actions on the South China Sea under five presidential administrations: Ramos, Estrada, Arroyo, Aquino, and Duterte. The author observes that the country’s foreign and security policies have consistently rested on five pillars: (1) bilateral diplomacy with China, (2) multilateral diplomacy through ASEAN, (3) grounding in the law of the sea, (4) maintaining the alliance, and (5) modernizing the military.

Territorial and Maritime Disputes in the West Philippine Sea: Foreign Policy Choices and their Impact on Domestic Stakeholders (2016) 

The study examines the defense and maritime law enforcement sector, the fisheries sector and energy industry, as well as those engaged in trade, investments, and tourism cooperation with China. The author recommends better inter-agency harmonization of its policy priorities, improving central-local governments’ understanding of their respective roles, and introducing more consultative and inclusive decision-making processes involving non-state stakeholders, in order to improve policy coherence.

Retrofitting Small Marine Vessels for Range Extension and Emissions Reduction (2022)

Considering that the cost of fully electric-powered boats is beyond the reach of small boat owners and operators, this paper explores the option of retrofitting small vessels with hybrid electric engines that can increase range but use fuel more efficiently. The paper explores this technology for use in coastal communities, with municipal fishers as potential target beneficiaries.

Revisiting the Maritime Territories and Jurisdictions of the Philippines (2000)

The main issue preventing the implementation of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea is its impact on the  national territory. This paper intends to delve into this issue by providing an overview of the development of our national territory laws and the historical context for the introduction of the Convention.

Some Marine Transport Concerns (2000) 

While the policy framework of marine transportation is adequately addressed by existing government agencies, some glaring gaps such as the need to process and improve available information on sea states regularly, the seaworthiness of outrigger boats or bancas, and the implications of the preference of Filipino crew for work overseas, among other issues, are discussed in the paper.

Valuing and Managing the Philippines’ Marine Resources toward a Prosperous Ocean-Based Blue Economy (2017) 

This paper attempts to review the major issues concerning marine ecosystems in relation to the country’s pursuit of the blue economy. It discusses the economic and social activities in relation to the seas and coastal areas, and provides updated estimates of the real value of the country’s marine ecosystems’ goods and services.


Established in 1985 during the presidency of then–UP President Edgardo J. Angara, UP CIDS is a policy research unit of the UP System. It is mandated to encourage collaborative and rigorous research addressing issues of national significance by supporting scholars and securing funding, enabling them to produce outputs and recommendations for public policy.Visit the UP CIDS database and download over 900 (and counting) policy papers for free