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Program on Escaping the Middle – Income Trap: Chains for Change

  • Source/Credit: PEF file
    Presentation of EMIT C4C of its action research cases to the PEF board of trustees
  • Source/Credit: Annette Balaoing-Pelkmans, Ph.D.
    Photo taken by the EMIT C4C convenor while on fieldwork


    The Program on Escaping the Middle Income Trap: Chains for Change (EMIT C4C) traces its beginnings from the Escaping the Middle-Income Trap: Pragmatic Strategies for Inclusive Growth project undertaken by the University of the Philippines System (particularly the UP School of Economics and the UP College of Social Sciences and Philosophy), the Erasmus University Rotterdam (particularly the Rotterdam School of Management or RSM and the Erasmus School of Economics), and the Asian Institute of Technology in Bangkok.

    From 2011 until 2016, the research consortium examined why, of the many countries that have managed to transition from a low-income to a middle-income country status, only very few have succeeded in joining the cluster of industrialized and rich economies of the world.

    One of the key realizations of the EMIT research project is that the overall problem of the Philippines’ lack of competitiveness (especially vis-à-vis the closest ASEAN competitors) is the low and stagnant agricultural productivity and the dysfunctional supply chains in the sector. Key to the analysis is the fundamental interconnection between this competitiveness challenge and the lack of inclusiveness in the agricultural sector. Addressing the marginalization of smallholder farmers and producers is therefore not only a primary societal goal in order to restore their human dignity, but an economic (competitiveness) imperative as well to transition towards sustainable growth.


    EMIT C4C aims to examine the nexus of inclusion and competitiveness in the country’s efforts to achieve sustainable growth. For its initial year, the focus was on Inclusive Business Models in Agricultural Value Chains.

    Since 2019, the Program has been undertaking three projects through team science: big data analytics on manufacturing and exports, action research on agriculture and fisheries value chains, and action research on business for peace. Inclusive science provides learning spaces for EMIT C4C and its partners to reflect on wicked societal problems and to co-create approaches for addressing them.

    The Program actively links itself with global efforts to realize the United Nations’ 17 Sustainable Development Goals through its partnership with Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University.



    Public Policy Monograph Series 2020-05: Competiton Policy and Inclusion in the Philippines 5 MB 6 downloads

    PPMS 2020-05 Competition Policy and Inclusion in the Philippines (Online Ver.) ...

    Going Against the Grain: The Unifrutti Transformational Business Partnership Model | Monograph 2020-02 7 MB 9 downloads

    PPMS 2020-02 Going Aginst the Grain_The Unifrutti Transformational Business Partnership...


    View the Term Reports from 2018 to 2022 for a list of EMIT-4C programs and activities, which include meetings, webinars, and/or publications (forthcoming or already published). 


    The Team

    Annette O. Balaoing – Pelkmans, Ph.D.

    Senior Research Associate
    Partnerships Resource Centre
    Rotterdam School of Management
    Erasmus University

    Jane Lynn Capacio

    Senior Research Analyst

    Program on Escaping the Middle Income Trap: Chains for Change (EMIT C4C)

    Rio Marie Delgado

    Senior Project Associate

    Program on Escaping the Middle Income Trap: Chains for Change (EMIT C4C)

    Moamar Rasad

    Junior Research Associate

    Program on Escaping the Middle Income Trap: Chains for Change (EMIT C4C)